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Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Synovial Sarcoma Key Facts

  • Accounts for ~10% of soft tissue tumors
  • Most common in Young adults (20-40)
  • Most commonly occurs in the extremities near large joints (80% in the knees and ankles)
  • Classic t(X;18)(p11;q11) translocation
  • SYT-SSX gene fusion
  • Micro: Often has a biphasic histologic appearance containing both epithelial and spindle cell components
Category: Pathology Mnemonics


The future of cancer therapy seems to lie in targeting the unique features that each cancer uses to thrive:


Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Which testicular tumor is DeadPool referring to in this movie clip?


Teratoma (Dermoid cyst) - Commonly contains teeth and hair! A testicle with teeth!!! Yikes!

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Perhaps the same may be said of Pathologists! 

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Yolk Sac Tumor Mnemonic

Here's a fun way to remember the key facts about yolk sac tumor of the testes!

Read more: Yolk Sac Tumor Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Ain't it the truth!  This is a corollary of Murphy's law!    So stay cool    during the exam and always stick with your first answer!

The only exception is the small percentage of students, and you know who you are,  whose first answer is always wrong  - then go for the other one!!!! 

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


  • Q: When is a lens really NOT a lens?
  • A:  When it's a-fake-ic! 

Aphakia = Absence of the lens of the eye.  It is usually due to surgical removal but may also be a congenital anomaly.  Without a lens there is a loss of accommodation and hyperopia (farsightedness).


  • Q:  What happens when the retina cries?
  • A:  You get retinal tears! 

Retinal Tears often present with "flashes and floaters" and can lead to vision-threatening retinal detachment!  Retinal tears are usually treated with laser surgery or cryotherapy (Cryopexy).


  • Q:  What happened when the Ophthalmologist fell into the lens grinder?
  • A: He made a spectacle of himself! 


Got any good Ophthalmology jokes?  Share them with me in the comment section!


Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Pathology of the Cornea Quiz


Can you answer these 6 questions related to the cornea and it's diseases?

Read more: Pathology of the Cornea Quiz

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Ophthalmology Photo Quiz 1

A 68 year old male smoker with gradual bilateral visual loss as shown in the photo. 

What's your diagnosis?

Read more: Ophthalmology Photo Quiz 1

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Sorry Daenerys... My students ROCK!


Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Mnemonic

Here's a way to use the name to remember the key features of Medullary Carcinoma of the thyroid:

Read more: Medullary Carcinoma Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Intrauterine Growth Restriction Mnemonic

Here's a quick review and mnemonic for causes of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR):

Read more: Intrauterine Growth Restriction Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Henoch–Schönlein Purpura Mnemonic

Here's a fun way to remember some important facts about Henoch–Schönlein purpura:

Read more: Henoch–Schönlein Purpura Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Dermatomyositis Mnemonic

Here's a quick review of dermatomyositis using the story of "Joe Millionaire":

Read more: Dermatomyositis

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Squamous Cell Carcinoma In-Situ

Here's a way to remember the important features of squamous cell carcinoma in-situ of the penis:

Read more: BaroneMnemonic: SCC In-situ lesions

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis

Here's a fun way to remember the association of Dermatomyositis and polymyositis with the anti-JO-1 antibodies using the Singer Miley Cyrus and her ex-boyfriend Nick Jonas:

Read more: Barone Mnemonic: Dermatomyositis

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Arabic Mnemonic for Kaposi Sarcoma

Here's a simple way to remember the Kaposi Sarcoma virus for my Arabic friends:

Read more: Barone Mnemonic: Kaposi Sarcoma

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Photo Courtesy of Dr. Daniel Breland

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Med School Clubbing

The definition of 'clubbing'  changes after you go to medical school! 

Read more: Med School Clubbing

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


“It all started with a Kiss!”


Kisspeptin is a protein coded by the KISS1 gene and is produced in the arcuate nucleus. Kisspeptin stimulates the release of GnRH by the hypothalamus leading to the release of gonadotropins by the pituitary which stimulates the gonads resulting in puberty.

So it looks like KISS and Gene Simmons have been stimulating gonads and turning kids into adolescents for years! 

Note: Kisspeptin was discover in Hershey, Pennsylvania which is the home of "Hershey's Kisses!"

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Wing-beating tremor.  Can you name the diagnosis?

Read more: Video Quiz #3

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Cadmium Poisoning

Here's an awesome animation showing all the key board facts for Cadmium Poisoning!:

Animations and Illustrations thanks to Dr. Cyrus Ghaedi.

Copyright ©2012 Thunderpath Media Inc.

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Differential Diagnosis of Alcohol Poisoning

*Metabolic acidosis with an increased gap may occur due to production of lactic acid or hypoglycemia(ketones)

  • All are commonly used as an ethanol substitute.
  • All are initially metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH).
  • Blood levels of each alcohol - is the most specific test!

 Key Clues

  • Alcohol and Isopropyl alcohol look similar except fruity breath!
  • Isopropyl alcohol can be distinguished from Methanol and ethylene glycol because of the absence of anion gap metabolic acidosis!
  • Fluorescence of the urine under Wood’s lamp suggests ethylene glycol because of fluorescein, a component of antifreeze.


Download the Alcohol Poisoning CheatSheet!

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


What kind of anemia is associated with lead poisoning?

Sideroblastic anemia

What will be seen on the peripheral blood smear?

Microcytic anemia with basophilic stipling

What will be found on the bone marrow biopsy?

Ringed Sideroblasts on prussian blue stain.

What steps in the synthesis of hemoglobin does lead interfere with?

The 2nd enzyme ALA-dehydratase and the final enzyme Ferrochelatase.

What type of renal disease is associated with lead poisoning?

Acute tubular injury (ATI)

What is the first step in the treatment of lead poisoning?

Stop the exposure!

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Intergrated Cases by Dr. Lionel Raymon

Here's a sample of Dr. Raymon!  This guy is awesome:

Read more: Tuberculosis by Dr Raymon

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

"I have the most AWESOME students on the Planet!" - Dr. Barone
Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Here's a recent case from the wards to inspire you to become the best doctor that you can be.  You will save lives and change the world for the better!!   Can you make the diagnosis?

Hey John:

I'm one of your Kaplan students whom you taught in Newark NJ back in 2010.  Currently I'm in my final year in internal medicine and will do hepatology next.  The reason I'm sending you this message is to thank you for your valuable lectures. They were so awesome that not only helped me in Step 1 , 2, 3 but also helped me save a life...

I was in the MICU,  on call,  when I had this patient sent from the floor with severe altered mental status and she had been intubated so history out of the equation.  I examined her and found asymmetric reflexes in the knees on the physical. During the rounds, the intern read the labs which were significant for a low platelet count and elevated creatinine. I was sitting beside the attending who was emphasizing on some point about the platelet count and the need for transfusion. She then asked the intern and me what do we think is the diagnosis?

Read more: Learn your Craft

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


What is a Fishbone Diagram and what is it used for?


Read more: Fishbone Diagram

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Stages of a Contusion (Bruise)

Can you tell me why you get the different color changes of a bruise?

Read more: The Stages of a Contusion

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

BRCA1  Tumor Suppressor Gene

Here's a fun way to remember the chromosome number for BRCA1:

Read more: BaroneMnemonic: BRCA1

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Here are the distinguishing features of some of the most tested causes of Short stature (Dwarfism):

Read more: Short Stature

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Psychosocial Short Stature

Here are the key points for this rare cause of short stature:

Read more: Psychosocial Dwarfism

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

New Gestational Age Designations

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has decided to change the definition of Term pregnancy.  Here is the new designations along with the former designation:

The reasoning behind the change is that:

  • Research has shown that babies born in the "early term" have a 20% greater risk of significant complications compared to those born after 39 weeks.
  • "The frequency of adverse neonatal outcomes is lowest among uncomplicated pregnancies delivered between 39 0/7 weeks of gestation and 40 6/7 weeks of gestation" (Full Term)


Source:  American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

APGAR Mnemonic

Moonwalk your way to remembering the APGAR criteria.

Read more: APGAR Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) Mnemonic

Here's a visual way to remember the key associations for VHL:

Read more: BaroneMnemonic: VHL

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Mnemonic

Here's a way to remember some key facts about Hashimotos by using it's name!:

Read more: Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

You'd be surprised how many people don't realize that.


Thanks to Dr. Thomas Cacciola from his Indeterminate Causality Blog.

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Retinoblastoma Mnemonic

Here's a fun way to remember the key associations for familial retinoblastoma :

Read more: Retinoblastoma Mnemonic

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Here's a simple way to remember some important features of this autosomal recessive genetic disorder:

Read more: BaroneMnemonic: Abetalipoproteinemia

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

The Consequence of Not Preparing Well for the Dragons!

What's your guess?


Residency directors are less likely to look at your application if you have a failure on your first attempt of which board exam?

A) Step 1

B) Step 2 CK




Read more: Consequences

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

The name has the answer! 

Category: Pathology Mnemonics


Here's a sample of my medical music!  My 2nd song en Español!!!  For my Latin Medical Mafia!

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

 New version June 2, 2015! 

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

An oldie but a goodie!

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

Source: "The Agnew Clinic," an 1889 oil painting by Thomas Eakin, shows a 19th century operating theater in action. (Image: Philadelphia Museum of Art/Public Domain)

Category: Pathology Mnemonics

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